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Cancer Types

Detailed Information

Rectal Cancer

The patients have bleeding in stool ,pain or lump in the rectal area .Its diagnosed with biopsy.
It’s usually treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy first to control and shrink the tumor in the rectum.Then surgery is performed. Some patients need more chemotherapy after surgery.

Lung Cancer

It is one of the common cancers. Usually it happens in smokers, but it occurs in non-smokers as well.
Lung cancer is of many kinds including non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer.
Non-small cell lung cancers are subdivided into several types including adenocarcinoma and Squamous cell cancer .
If diagnosed early the cancer is usually treated with surgery.
If it has spread locally, then it can be treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, if it has spread and is stage 4 disease, treatment is chemotherapy ,immunotherapy or combination of both. The newer drugs like immunotherapy help some patients live longer and better lives .

It is the cancer which happens in the lining membrane around the lung or rarely in the lining of the abdomen.
Most effective treatment is surgery and is possible if diagnosed early. However, the majority of the time , cancer has already spread at the time of diagnosis .In this situation chemotherapy is the only option and it can work to slow down the cancer.

Ovarian cancer symptoms are very vague and nonspecific.Usually patients have increasing abdominal size,bloating,pain in abdomen,problems with eating and bowels ,pain in abdomen etc.

Diagnosis is made by taking fluid out of the abdomen and checking it for cancer cells.If there is no fluid,then biopsy of the tumor is needed along with ultrasound,CT scan etc.Also blood tests like ca 125, which is a cancer marker in the blood ,is helpful in many patients ,to make a diagnosis.
Surgery is needed in most patients.However ,many times ,women need chemotherapy to shrink down the tumor and control and dry up the fluid in the abdomen. if the tumor is controlled with chemotherapy , then the surgery is done to get rid of the remaining cancer. At the time of surgery it’s very important to remove the ovaries , uterus and other lining of the abdomen like
omentum and other tumors present in the abdomen.
Sometimes it’s not possible to remove all the cancer with surgery or if the cancer has spread to other organs ,more chemotherapy is used to control the cancer.

Patients usually come with abnormal vaginal spotting or bleeding, Pain in the abdomen or back, Weight loss etc.
If it’s diagnosed early ,surgery is done. However, the majority of the time patients need radiation or combination of radiation and chemotherapy after surgery.
If it has spread at the time of diagnosis, chemotherapy is effective to control the disease

The symptoms of this cancer ,usually, are abnormal vaginal bleeding and/or abdominal pain. surgery is effective if diagnosed early.
Sometimes radiation is done after surgery . However, if the cancer has spread, chemotherapy works in some women and controls the disease. Sometimes if it’s a hormone positive cancer, hormonal medicines also work .

There are many types of cancers in the brain .Some are slow growing and only need surgery or radiation after surgery.The most aggressive type is called glioblastoma multiforme (GBM in short). Usually the surgery is done to remove as much tumor as possible without damaging the brain. After the surgery radiation is done along with chemotherapy.
If the cancer comes back or starts to progress again, further chemotherapies are possible to control the disease and keep the quality of life.

Usually patients have swelling in the neck glands or swelling in the axilla/armpit. Sometimes it is found in the chest or abdominal lymph glands or other organs .Usually a biopsy is required for diagnosis.
Most important treatment is chemotherapy. In most patients it is curable, even if the disease has spread all over the body. Sometimes the radiation is also done to get rid of the remaining disease after chemotherapy.

There are several kinds, some could be very aggressive lymphomas and some not as aggressive. This is determined by biopsy and pathology results.
Most common types are b-cell lymphomas like follicular lymphoma ,Diffuse large b-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) etc.
There are many effective chemotherapy, immunotherapy and biologic therapy options.
Many times Low-grade lymphoma types do not need treatment right away especially if there are no problems or symptoms because of the lymphoma.

Bladder cancer

Urinary bladder cancer usually presents with blood in the urine or pain in that area. If diagnosed early, it is treated with surgery. Some people need chemotherapy or radiation therapy before or after surgery.
if cancer can’t be removed with surgery, It is treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
If it has spread further, it is usually treated with chemotherapy , immunotherapy .These are effective in controlling the disease for some time.

Head and neck cancer

There are many kinds of head and neck cancers which can occur in many areas including throat, tongue, cheek etc.
If diagnosed early ,surgery is done .After surgery ,sometimes ,chemotherapy and radiation is needed to prevent the cancer from coming back.
Unfortunately , in many patients, disease is advanced and spread to the neck glands. Then it requires chemotherapy to shrink the tumor and radiation therapy to shrink the tumor further.
Sometimes these treatments are used together at the same time and are called concurrent therapy.
If the tumor has spread beyond the neck ( for example to the lungs or other organs) then it is treated with chemotherapy. Sometimes radiation is used to control the disease and symptoms.
Some people have good responses to treatment and long-term Disease Control is possible.

Acute Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia(AML). This is one of the aggressive cancers of the bone marrow.
It usually requires chemotherapy for several months.
About twenty to thirty percent of patients are cured with chemotherapy.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL) is also one of the aggressive leukemias.
It responds to the treatment and is cured in thirty to thirty five percent patients .

Multiple Myeloma

Usually it presents with bone pains ,tiredness ,low blood counts ,high calcium in the blood etc.
Diagnosis usually requires a blood test and a bone marrow biopsy and x-rays of all the bones.
There are several effective treatments available and disease can be controlled for longtime with treatments.

Hairy Cell Leukemia

It is low-grade leukemia .Patients have large spleen and low blood counts.
Sometimes it requires treatment and treatments are effective in many patients.

Testicular cancer

This is one of the most curable cancers even if it has spread .
If diagnosed early, surgery is performed first and then chemotherapy is done to stop the cancer from coming back.
However, if the tumor has already spread , the surgery is usually done after treating it with chemotherapy first. The majority of the people get rid of the disease with chemotherapy.
Whatever cancer is left after chemotherapy , is removed with surgery. Rarely radiation is needed.

Kidney cancer

Patients with Kidney /renal cell cancer usually have blood in the urine or pain in the back. It can spread to other organs and cause symptoms accordingly.
If diagnosed early before the cancer spreads, the kidney is removed. However, if the tumor has spread, there are many treatment options including immunotherapies .Many patients have good responses to immunotherapy which are given in injection/drip .

Other options in tablet forms are also useful and work to control the disease ,improve symptoms and prolong life in many patients.

Thyroid cancer

The thyroid cancers are of many types and are treated with surgery if diagnosed early. Sometimes patients need Radioactive iodine therapy after surgery .If cancer has spread or comes back after surgery and iodine therapy ,chemotherapy is used .

Sarcomas

Sarcomas are cancers of muscles ,bones ,joints ,fat and other soft tissues in the body.Best option is surgery If the tumor can be removed. However, if the tumor cannot be removed, then chemotherapy and radiation therapy is used to control the cancer. Some sarcomas respond well to the treatment like Ewing sarcoma or osteosarcoma of the bone or GIST.

Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia (CML)

It is one of the most treatable leukemias with very effective drugs available. People usually have high white blood cell counts and big spleen.Treatment is lifelong.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

It’s also one of the common leukemias. Many people do not require treatment if they are diagnosed incidentally and have no symptoms.Many treatments are available and effective in controlling the disease.